The most common cause of severe thrombocytopenia in neonates, and of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in term neonates [1] is fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) (J Trop Pediatr, 1999; 45: 237). If a newborn is affected with AIT, the next child will likely be more severely affected. Fetal thrombocytopenia, therefore, will begin early in gestation [2, 3] (Arch Neurol, 1984; 41: 30; N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 22), which creates a risk of in utero ICH even if there was not one in the previous pregnancy. New developments in AIT with regard to diagnosis, treatment, and screening are the focus of this review.

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